The main components of steel are iron and carbon in early time, and the difference in steel properties mainly depends on carbon content and processing technology. The invention of the converter in the mid-19th century made it possible for the mass production and use of steel. With the addition of ferroalloys, the application of steel has been ever-changing, which greatly expanded the breadth and depth of steel applications area.
Based on the rich hydroelectric resources, France was the main producing country of ferroalloys in the early stage, and Norway became the largest exporting country of ferroalloys in the 1980s and 1990s. Ferroalloy production in China is mainly concentrated in Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan, Ningxia and other districts, accounting for more than 50% of China’s total ferro-alloy production.
As the necessary accessory material of steel-making, the amount of ferroalloy used accounts for 2%-4% (20-40 kg) of ton steel output. With the maintain sustained and fast growth of China’steel industry, the continuous expansion of steel varieties and the improvement of quality, the ferroalloy products have higher requirements, and the uses are the same, such as deoxidizer, alloy agent, casting crystal nucleus inoculating agent, reducing agent.
At the same time, according to the different requirements of steelmaking, there are hundreds of ferroalloy varieties. Among them, the three series are silicon, manganese and chromium, they account for more than 90% of the total output of ferroalloys, so silicon, manganese, and chromium are called “the three seasoning brothers”. Due to the difficulty and high cost of purification of “Three Brothers”, it is used in the form of iron compounds, and its effect is almost the same as that of pure products. Therefore, “Three Brothers Seasoning” are no different in the form of alloys such as ferrosilicon, manganese silicon, and ferrochrome existence and use.
The use of steelmaking
Manganese: Increases the strength and hardness of steel.
Silicon: Improve the elasticity and tensile strength of steel, and enhance the magnetic permeability of steel.
Chromium: It makes steel have good corrosion resistance and wear resistance, and is an important raw material for the production of stainless steel.