Ferrosilicon is a ferroalloy composed of iron and silicon, which is made by smelting in an electric furnace with coke, steel shavings, quartz (or silica) as raw materials. It is widely used in steelmaking industry, foundry industry and ferroalloy industry. It is used as deoxidizer and alloying agent in steelmaking, as inoculant and nodulizer in cast iron, and as reducing agent in ferroalloy production. At present, domestic ferrosilicon is mainly used for steelmaking and magnesium metal production.
Manganese-silicon is a ferroalloy with wide application and large output. It uses manganese ore (including manganese-rich slag), coke, silica, etc. as raw materials. The main application is steelmaking. It is mainly used as a composite deoxidizer and alloy In addition, it is also used as a desulfurization agent to a certain extent.
Ferro-silicon and manganese-silicon are the most widely used ferroalloys in the steelmaking process. The biggest difference between them is that the raw materials for production are different. Second, the usage is different. Ferrosilicon is only used as a deoxidizer, while silicomanganese has the effect of deoxidation and desulfurization at the same time. In addition, silicomanganese can also effectively purify molten steel.
(1) Cost composition of ferrosilicon The main raw materials for producing ferrosilicon are silica, semi-coke and iron oxide scale. Among them, silica is the main source of silicon (Si) in ferrosilicon; semi-coke is mainly used as a carbonaceous reducing agent to reduce silicon in silica; iron oxide scale is mainly used as iron-containing material to adjust the composition of ferrosilicon, especially iron In addition, it also has the effect of promoting the reduction of silica in silica.
(2) Cost composition of manganese silicon The main raw materials for the production of manganese silicon alloy are manganese ore (including manganese-rich slag), coke, silica, etc., among which the cost of manganese ore accounts for about 60% of the production cost of manganese silicon.
Price difference between ferrosilicon and manganese silicon
When it was listed in 2014, the price of manganese silicon was 650 yuan/ton higher than that of ferrosilicon, and the price of thermal coal at that time was 480 yuan/ton; from 2018 to November 2020, the price of manganese silicon was always higher than that of ferrosilicon. The average price difference is -1130 yuan/ton. It can be understood that the price of manganese and silicon is 1000 yuan/ton higher than that of ferrosilicon as a whole.
Since 2021, especially around the National Day, due to the rise in electricity prices, the cost of ferrosilicon has risen, and the price of ferrosilicon has continued to rise, with an increase exceeding that of manganese and silicon. The maximum price difference appeared on October 12, 2021, and the difference was 5026 yuan /Ton. From January to December, the average price difference between ferrosilicon, manganese and silicon is 850 yuan/ton.
The current price of ferrosilicon is 900 yuan/ton higher than that of manganese and silicon. On the one hand, the cost of ferrosilicon electricity accounts for a relatively high proportion. Under the background of high coal price and shortage of coal electricity, it supports the high price of ferrosilicon. On the other hand, the current price of semi-coke has doubled due to factors such as regional production restrictions and high raw material prices, while the price of manganese ore has been relatively stable, and the price center of gravity has even dropped slightly in recent years.
From the perspective of cost ratio analysis, assuming that the electricity price is maintained at about 0.6 yuan/ton, semi-coke is about 1,800 yuan/ton, manganese ore is 850 yuan/ton, and manganese-rich slag is about 1,125 yuan/ton to calculate that the price of ferrosilicon is higher than manganese silicon 1,000 Yuan/ton or so. Therefore, from the perspective of cost, the price difference between ferrosilicon and manganese silicon should be maintained at about 1,000 yuan. In the case of small fluctuations in other factors, the price of ferrosilicon is higher than that of manganese silicon for a long time. Of course, it should be another matter when the regional supply and demand factors change.